Instagram, Social Media, Symbol, Communication, Icon

For my major project of the course, I choose to provide comments on my personal journey of using social media apps as part of me being transformed into a digital citizen. I choose in this blog to provide some in-depth introduction to Instagram.

I am not a social media user. I had Instagram on my mobile a long time ago. It is my habit of downloading every app my kids mention, so I get a sense of how it looks like.  I used Instagram several times over the past two weeks. It is a user-friendly and straightforward app.

What is Instagram?

According to the App store: “Instagram from Facebook, Bringing you closer to the people and things you love. Connect with friends, share what you’re up to, or see what’s new from others all over the world. Explore our community where you can feel free to be yourself and share everything from your daily moments to life’s highlights.”

  • Instagram is the number 1 app in the Photos & Video category
  • It has a rating of 4.7 based on 1.4 million reviews (Wow, that is a lot of reviews!!!)
  • We are in version # 127


  • According to Cindy Liu, a senior forecasting analyst at, “Instagram Is the Fastest-Growing Social Media Platform in Canada.”
  • According to CIRA, Instagram is the third most popular social media network in Canada after Facebook and LinkedIn.

There are many reasons why Children/teens love Instagram? Quoting my kids:

  • Can communicate with friends and family without a phone number (only a small percentage of Canadian kids who have a phone also have a phone subscription)
  • Can share posts and receive likes, comments and more.
  • Can see other people’s posts like your favourite team, favourite sports player and more.
  • Can enter giveaways to earn prizes.
  • Can create and post your own stories and customize it
  • Can be updated of everything happening around the world
  • Can learn various tips and tricks

How you communicate and use Instagram?

Main features on Instagram include:

Home button:

  • I can browse and explore posts from those I follow. I can watch their stories by clicking on their photos above the post. Also, from the top, I can check all of the new stories from people I follow.
  • I can like, share or comment on posts
  • I can bookmark posts and organize them in folders like Pinterest

DM(Direct Messaging): I can send messages privately to people I follow. However, anyone can send me a message (after approving them) even if my account is private. The DM works like Facetime or Messenger. I can use it as a chat tool or make video calls.

Creating Stories: This feature alone has been a very famous addition to some of the social media apps. I can create and post stories by clicking on the camera icon at the top left corner of the app. Instagram works like Snapchat on this part. The story you create only lasts for 24 hours then disappears. I can make the story stay longer than the 24 hours by highlighting it. The limit time of a single story is 15 sec. I can create multiple 15-sec segments to create a lengthy story or use IGTV

IGTV: It can be used to create longer videos. Anyone have full access to IGTV’s content. No parental controls at all and lots of adult content,  which is  quite problematic from parents’ point of view.

Discovery: It allows me to search for videos, posts or photos on Instagram by clicking on the magnification lens. I can see posts from people even if I am not following them.

I find Instagram entertaining and addictive. I kind of understand now why it is so popular among students. Here are a few observations after using it frequently for two weeks.

  • Since I signed up for Instagram, I decided to follow only family and friends. However, I was drawn to follow more people each time I am checking it until I found myself following 120 people [now 318 :-)) as per the picture]. With so much posts, I discovered that I don’t see posts from my family and friends’ as much as before. I couldn’t keep up with all these posts from influencers, fashionistas, chefs, and news outlets. I had to create another account after only two weeks of frequent usage. I created another account to follow things I am interested in and kept my original one for family and friends. I found my daughter did something similar and created what she calls “a spam account” jointly with her best friend.  The definition is worrying me but I am happy I know about it now. This will give me a chance to talk to my daughter on how to protect herself.
  • Instagram is designed to keep you scrolling and scrolling with no clear end. I found this quite distracting and addictive, to say the least (let alone how much time kids spend on it)
  • Hashtags are a very powerful searching method on Instagram. The problem is Instagram is quite visual not like Twitter, so you can expect to see all sorts of visuals when you search for something. This is quite worrying for me as a parent, and I am not sure how to filter these images.
  • Instagram Is now hiding likes counter, which I find a good move to make users focus more on the content and quality of the post, not how many likes the post got.

For my next post, I will focus more on Instagram’s privacy and terms of use and how.

Major project Update

Alec asked us to provide an update of our major project, thinking specifically about how my project relates to one or more elements of digital citizenship. 

With this substantial global penetration of social media and its significant impact on all aspects of our life ( Personal, educational and professional), there is a need for a framework to teach Digital Citizenship to our kids has become essential and crucial.  The nine elements of digital citizenship by Mike Ribble are a great framework and guideline to know what does it mean to be a digital citizen? Common Sense Education describes digital citizenship simply as “the responsible use of technology to learn, create, and participate.” Mike Ribble says that “digital citizenship is more than just a teaching tool; it is a way to prepare students for a society full of technology.” It basically defines how we use technology to engage with our community. Use technology to communicate at work, to buy/ sell online and to participate in online debates to discuss societal/global issues.   Therefore, when thinking of my major project, the following three elements of the nine elements came to my mind:

Social Media, Social, Media, Www, Icons, Icon Communication: This can be defined as “the electronic exchange of information.” Social media has become the primary form of communication among today’s generation. Digital citizens need to learn how to: 

  • Exchange information properly
  • Make appropriate decisions when communicating through social media apps. 
  • Raise the awareness of what to share and how to share it, 
  • Don’t share personal information or direct messages people you don’t know.
  • Know that when they delete a message or a photo, it doesn’t mean that it has been erased forever and that it can still be stored somewhere in the cloud. 
  • Protect themselves from cyberbullying and learn not to bully others. 

Media Literacy, Technology, Digital Citizenship, Candy Fluency/ Literacy: According to Mike Ribble, “it is the process of understanding technology and its use. The better educated or “digitally fluent” students are, the more likely they are to make the right decisions online, like supporting others instead of making negative comments. Digital literacy includes the discussion of media literacy and the ability to discern good information from poor, such as “fake news” from real news.”  Therefore, I am planning to provide information on how to use each app I am reviewing, highlight the main features and elements, how to use the app to our advantage and how to determine the accuracy of the information we access through these apps to make wise choices. With some apps like Instagram, I think I can reflect on the Digital Commerce element.  These are all essential skills that students must be equipped with to be able to compete and live in today’s culture. 

Digital commerce is growing significantly to the point it affects the regular retail industry. Ribble defined this element as “the electronic buying and selling of goods and focuses on the tools and safeguards in place to assist those buying, selling, banking, or using money in any way in the digital space. Career and technical education use the tools of technology to show students the path for their futureMaking a well-informed purchasing decision online is very important these days.  Tips on how to purchase online, what type of payment should we use? How to protect our paying method information? Choose who to buy from? Are all fundamental skills that our students, even adult, should be aware of and learn. 

The updated version of the nine elements of digital citizenship emphasized three guiding principals Safe, Savvy and Social (or S3). I would like to focus on the Safe (Protect yourself.Protect others) part of S3 on my major project by understanding our rules and responsibility while using each app. Read and analyze the terms of use and privacy policy. Moreover, learn how to protect our personal information and data online. 

With all these guidelines and frameworks in mind, I feel like my social media journey will be kind of exploring how to best use each app and how to be a good digital citizen while using it. I am excited as I am starting to look at apps with a different lens than before. I am confident I will learn a lot along my journey. 

“Digital Citizenship is more than just a teaching tool, it is a way to prepare students for a society full of technology.”

Dr. Mike Ribble

Future of Education

In the last class, we discussed the generational, cultural, and societal changes that may happen ahead. 

Generally speaking, “change” is expected in generational characteristics, in job market requirements and in technology and its adoption. Looking at generation Z for example, who has access to the internet and technology since day one “all technology all the time”.  They spend a lot of their daily time on social media. They are used to “On-demand” “Personalized experience” on different aspects of their life. like using Youtube, Netflix to search for what they want to watch. 

 I agree with Adam, the need for technological skills is a necessity for our students to be able to compete in the future. In fact, this is not just about students but the entire generation.   This is due, in part, to the expected 4th industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) and its adoption of the Internet of Things. (other factors include globalization for example) This wave of industrialization will bring even more data-oriented automation that surpasses that brought by the 3rd industrial revolution.   According to the article, “The fourth industrial revolution” “Some advances are ahead of others. Mobile internet and cloud technology are already impacting the way we work. Artificial intelligence, 3D printing and advanced materials are still in their early stages of use, but the pace of change will be fast” In addition, In the 2020 Future Work Skills “Global connectivity, smart machines, and new media are just some of the drivers reshaping how we think about work, what constitutes work, and the skills we will need to be productive contributors in the future.” 

No one can really know the limits of the change that will be caused to our lives. 

  For example,  “65 percent of children entering school today may end up in jobs that have not yet been invented [according to the World Economic Forum the Future of Jobs report” The skills required for such jobs are not known yet, we can make some predictions, but no one knows for sure. This raises a lot of questions about our educational system and how it can keep up with these changes. 


Considering these characteristics and  the 2020 Future Work Skills six drivers of change

Expected Societal Characteristic Skills required
Rise of smart machines and systems:  Workplace automation nudges human workers out of rote, repetitive tasks Sense-Making

Noval and Adaptive Thinking

Social intelligence


Computational world:  Massive increases in sensors and processing power make the world a programmable system 4- New media ecology: New communication tools require new media literacies beyond text Computational thinking

Design Mindset

Cognitive load management

Superstructed organizations:  Social technologies drive new forms of production and value creation Design Mindset

Cross-cultural competence

New-Media Literacy

Cognitive load management

Virtual Collaboration

New media ecology Computational thinking

New-Media Literacy

Cognitive load management

Extreme longevity:  Increasing global lifespans change the nature of careers and learning New-Media Literacy
globally connected world:  Increased global interconnectivity puts diversity and adaptability at the center of organizational operations New-Media Literacy

Virtual Collaboration

Social intelligence

Noval and Adaptive Thinking


Accordingly, educational systems have to change to keep up with these rapid changes (and Transit into Education 4.0).  Educators are on a mission to implement innovative pedagogical approaches to teach their students so they can get the most out of their learning experience.  Some suggestions include

  1. From an early age, students must learn to actively engage with the material through critical analysis and fundamental questioning of existing norms and systems.
  2. Creating learning ecosystems that are personalized and self-paced; accessible and inclusive; problem-based and collaborative; and lifelong- and student-driven can help 
  3. Teaching methods that emphasize cultural awareness and diversity
  4. Technology design and programming  

I think teachers are trying their best to keep up with these constant changes. My kids are already using different types of technology tools in class (Seesaw, Google Classroom, and Kahoot) are some examples. Many of the assignments that my high school daughter gets are project- and research-based requiring lots of problems solving and critical thinking skills conducted by a group of students.

However, there are some cases when teachers aren’t capable to keep up with the students’  interests and characteristics. They still rely on passive learning and memorization. Especially, when there is a big generational gap. To be honest this doesn’t happen often. I think the fact that millennial is starting to get in the workforce is minimizing this gap already.  However, the change has to happen in a faster base in the future as “Change won’t wait for us”. and, as Krysta C mentioned: “If education can’t keep up, then just like every other organization, it won’t survive”

Cypersecurity risks for students

Last week, we had  Mary Beth, author of “Digital Media and Literacy in the Age of the Internet,” as a guest speaker in class. Mary’s presentation was very informative.  Mary touched a lot of hot and interesting topics in her talk. She covered topics like how the Internet works, FOMO, COPPA Act, Cybersecurity, and digital literacy. I like how Adam summarize it all by an excellent title: “Digital Literacy for Dummies.”

Our kids use internet-based technology all the time.   Such technology is part of our life, not only in education but also in politics, socializing, marketing and news source.  As Mary mentioned in her presentation, “there is no edtech any more, it is only an ed.”  Educating kids about how the Internet (and Technology in general) works is very important for digital literacy.

Mary visually explained having a basic knowledge of this allows students to understand privacy, security issues and help them understand how the internet is a global community. Students need to understand how to use technology safely and wisely. It can be a bumpy road if we don’t use it responsibly. We have to make them aware of what is out there and how to protect themselves. 

There is no ‘real world’ and ‘digital world'” flickr photo by OllieBray shared under a Creative Commons (BY-NC-SA) license


Mary focused on cyber safety and security and how we can teach it to our kids. This is a huge concern for everyone. As adults, we give up our data without even noticing. How many of us read terms of use of the software/ apps we use on a daily basis?  Who reads the policies of websites? For example, we all heard of telephone tax scammers and how they were targeting elderly and new immigrants because they aren’t aware of tax laws in Canada. Imagine, then, how much kids’ privacy is exposed with the extensive use of social media apps and software.

There are other means to collect more and more data personalized data.  Audrey Watters, dug deep into this and explained how schools, for example, collect enrollment data, attendance data, graduation data, disciplinary data, standardized test data as it is one of today’s mandate. But as she stated, “There is, however, little evidence that collecting more data improves teaching or learning. Nevertheless, education technology continues to insist that its software and algorithms can identify students who are struggling – academically or emotionally.

Imagine that some schools even collect and use students’ biometric data to solve cheating issues. The schools use software and algorithms to eliminate the need for human oversight in online exams. Audrey Watters, provides many other cases that she explained in her article.  “Education Technology and Data Insecurity,” 

Data collecting and selling is all over the place. Alec shared a website last week called “We sell your Data.” The website is trying to raise awareness of this enormous issue of collecting data from users. The main message is Be smart about who you choose to give your data.”  Mary told us how she got rid of her Alexa, knowing how it can be a spy in her house, along with the smart TV can eavesdropping on our private conversations as per the article Matteo shared with us.  I actually suspect that the Google Mini at our home spies on us and listens to our discussion!!! Or else how did they know how to provide me with very relevant recommendations on my YouTube timeline??

Having appropriate policies to control the shared data is another crucial aspect. Mary mentioned COPPA law and how it is a good framework especially with students younger than 13 years. I agree with Amanda on the importance of the role of school and educators in teaching students how to behave online and how to think critically and ask themselves questions like; who will access their data? How will data be collected? Where will this data be stored? Will their data be shared with another 3rd party? What data should be provided, and what should not? Mary also stressed on teaching them how to validate the information by using Google reverse image search or checking different websites to source the information and seek the truth.  Eventually, they will be able to make the right choices while creating their digital citizenship.

Mary’s presentation motivated me to talk to my kids more about Cybersafety and security and how to make good choices online. We watched, the movie Searching! It provides a good story of what can happen to our kids online.

Major Project idea

I have been thinking a lot about what option to choose for my major project. Like AdamCatherine, Laurie, and many other of my EC&I 832 classmates  I decided to select Option 2: Personal journey into the media.

I am not a heavy user of Social media, and I feel it is about time to learn about different applications. I have four kids’ age ranges from 11 to 18. I need to understand the world they live in and be able to discuss things based on knowledge, not on what I prefer or used to when I was at their age.

For example, I never read the terms of use or privacy policy for any of my apps or software. Is it essential to do so for social media apps?

It is crucial for me at the end of this personal journey to be able to answer some of these few questions

  • What are the benefits of social media for our kids?

  • What are some of the privacy issues those apps have?
  • What they need to know to handle any issues they face using them?
  • How can “parents” keep them safe on social media?
  • How students can digitally collaborate?
  • Understand what is Cyberbullying; how can it happen using the selected apps and how our kids can stand up against it?
  • Can social media be used to help solve national/ international problems?

To be able to answer these questions, I will:

  1. Create accounts on these platforms and use them a fair amount of time
  2. Review each app in details
  3. Check the terms of uses and privacy policy for each app
  4. Highlight the pros and cons.

I hope to develop infographic guidelines at the end of reviewing each app for parents and students that include:

  • How to safely use each app
  • How can  (educational) resources be accessed through apps?
  • Variety of resources to educate students about digital citizenship
  • How to use social media for digital commerce in a cashless society?
  • social media culture and etiquette
  •  rights and responsibilities of users

I asked my kids about the most popular apps nowadays. They mentioned Snapchat, Tiktok and Instagram. I choose Snapchat and Instagram.

They weren’t much of a help for the educational one. I am thinking of starting with Flipgrid. Can you recommend some of the other educational apps you use in the classroom?

Welcome everyone!

Flickr photo, license under (CC BY 2.0)

Hi my EC&I 832 classmates, My name is Nataly Moussa. A wife, mom of four amazing kids and an Assistant instructional designer at the University of Regina. EC&I 832 is my fourth class with Alec, and also my second last class overall towards my Educational Technology certificate.

EC&I 833 was my first one in the program and my learning journey since I completed my Bachelor’s in computer science back in 2000. It was a wonderful learning experience. I was really enjoying it, and I learned a lot.

Writing a blog each week, in my previous courses with Alec, helped me shape my understanding for each topic significantly. I was very interested in every single topic we discussed in the class which made me spend most of my evening time everyday searching, reading and writing about it.

I am very excited to be working with all my classmates throughout this course and to learn more about Digital Citizenship.


Learning project journey

I chose to learn some aspects of Project Management as my learning project this term. In my opinion, the topic was a bit dull and abstract, but I tried to take advantage of the time allocated for this project to learn something I wanted to learn for a long time, as I explained in detail in my first post. Also, I tried to learn different tools along the journey to show my learning progress, as follows:

  • How to identify the critical path and the process of scheduling a project. I created a video explaining the process and steps of how to draw project “network diagram” and find its critical path. I used my Ipad pro and Zoom to record the video

Despite the knowledge I gained leaning the topic, I feel I am more aware of the resources around me that I can use to learn anything I want.

  • Blogging with my classmates and their recommendations and inspirations through breakout rooms or comments were a huge help.   I think we form a very nice community.  Twitter lists of previous students of the course are also an excellent resource to build a bigger community sharing the same interests.
  • The massive amount of open resources on the internet; Journals, articles, books and videos
  • Twitter was another great resource when I looked for #projectmanagement. I was able to identify a few of the “influencers” on the topic such as who  has a list of videos on project management that are very helpful
  • Youtube was my go-to resource when I am stuck with understanding a new concept or tool
  • Different hashtags (such as #projectmanagement ) on different platforms (Twitter and Youtube)  were an excellent resource for finding out links, videos, presentations and media that described the topic.
  • The Career & Professional Development workshops at CCE  were an eye-opening experience that I learned a lot from and enabled me to connect with many project managers and experts in Regina.
  • and the Regina public library were my way to go if I wanted to dig deeper into a specific concept or borrowing books

The only thing I failed to do is getting responses to my request for a recommendation on Twitter, but I know this is due to the small number of followers I have and the fact of being an introvert who still panick every time I use social media.

I used Wakelet as per Dean’s recommendation. Take a look at my first Wakelet.

I feel it was a time very well spent in learning something I will continue to use in my professional and personal life. I plan to learn other aspects of Project Management to connect the dots in my head.


Summary of Learning

Here we come again to the end of another great course with Alec Couros! I learned life-time skills in this course. I learned  how to become a life-long learner, how to use social media to my benefits, and how to filter information and search for good resources. I also learned project management skills and how to ensure the quality of my work.

My main takeaway from this course is how to build my Personal Learning Network. I believe for a person to become a life-long learner (LLL), he/ she needs to build their own personal learning network (PLN). One creates a PLN through the use of social media tools and websites.  In a PLN, each member is a producer and/or a consumer of knowledge. A PLN relies on the collaboration, transparency, innovation and creativity of its  members.

A PLN allows a person to learn the skills and competencies required to become a LLL. Participation in a PLN requires members to have: a)  Critical thinking abilities to filter, analyze and synthesize Information and knowledge, b) Creativity to produce new information and knowledge.

The PLN helps its members find, filter, modify Open Educational Resources (OER). A PLN relies on its  members to produce and/ or  consume  knowledge (for example, in the form of OER). Examples of OER include Online Workshops, Moocs, Local Seminars, Course Module, Video clips.  Examples of OER portals include eCampus Ontario and BCcampus. The openness of such materials allows users to (Retain, Revise, Reuse, Remix, and Redistribute).  However, this requires  uses of OER to have a very good knowledge of copyright and copyleft rules.

I used Videoscribe again to build this summary with an attempt to dig deeper into its many advanced features. There were an update since the last time I used it. The update has wider selection of images, more fonts, and faster render time.


Political Activism and Social Media

Can you imagine the Canadian government disabling, on purpose, Internet access all across the country? This is what happened in Iran last week. Yes. That is true. Dictator governments disable the Internet for the whole country!!

By Ramy Raoof – Egypt – Timeline of Communication Shutdown during the RevolutionUploaded by The Egyptian Liberal, CC BY 2.0,

This happened many times during the last decade. I will take Egypt, for example, where a video was shared in Fall 2010 on YouTube exposing police corruption distributing drugs was so widespread that they beat the person who posted it to death. As the news of his death spread, a Facebook page entitled “We are all Khaled Said” was set up, and in a few days, had more than 400,000 followers sharing images of a beaten up corpse. The page organized an event to protest on January 25, 2011, at Tahrir Square in Cairo. Momentum started building up, and people got held. On the morning of the 25th, It was surprising to the enormous and brutal police forces that many well-organized people showed up and were able to occupy the central square of Cairo and to kick the police out. Social Media was used heavily to invite and organize thousands of protesters. The government decided to block internet access for the whole FIVE days. “Activists resorted to calling friends from overseas via telephone to post tweets on their behalf.” Twitter reacted and created Speak2tweet service where people would call a landline, dictate their tweet, and this gets the tweet posted to Twitter with the hashtag #Egypt. This quickly gained momentum. The protesters kept on using social media. One protester summed their strategy well by saying, “We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world.” The Egyptian government has not had a good relationship with social media and its activists since then.

The Internet and especially social media are so powerful as a communications medium. It is so widespread that it is used by many many people to communicate and share ideas, including ideas of freedom, democracy, social justice, global warming. Later, the admin Wael Ghonim of that Facebook page was chosen to be among the Time Magazine 2011 most influential 100

I think Loreli and I agree that Social media allow individuals with no political power to share their ideas and this allowed novel models of activism. Let me explain. The 2005 movie “V for Vendetta” ( if you have not, I think you should spend the two hours watching it), tried to send the message that those if those individuals gather themselves can make profound changes in their political system. In this clip

By Jan Egil Kristiansen , CC BY 2.0,

The movie explains how V used the media to unite people and define their cause and how to tackle the issues. However, V had to take control of the main TV station to broadcast his message. (A classic first move of protesters is to take TV/ Radio buildings). Fast forward 14 years, with social media available and pervasive, there is no need to make buildings and fight police forces. Take, for example, this Egyptian contractor-turned-activist, Mohamed Ali, who sent a very similar message (to that of V) via Facebook/ Youtube in Sept 2019. People believed him and went to the streets of Egypt, protesting against the military regime. Mohamed is now trying to establish a unity opposition front outside Egypt to resist the dictatorship. Social media allowed the Egyptian people to unite on the same issues. Whether he will succeed is something we will know in the coming few months. Social media “creates community, and community is based on togetherness”(castell, 2010).

Could it be that social media is actually uniting people across the globe? In this Fall of 2019, we see people protesting in Hong Kong, Chile, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Honduras, Togo, Iran, Egypt, Algeria and many other countries across the globe (teachers in Oklahoma last year, and teachers in Virginia this year, the Black lives matter, and the #MeToo as well) . Social media plays a fundamental role in these protests. Protesters across the globe are sharing techniques to circumvent face recognition technology used by the Chinese government. They use masks, and laser pointers. Also, an idea was shared on social media to use air blowers to diver tear gas back in the direction of the police! NIFTY! I bet Hong Kong stores are sold out. If this is not global citizenship, then what can be?

This affects us as educators. We should consider global issues in our curriculum. I am afraid if we don’t, we are not serving our students the best. Mainly, that many of these problems are, if not replicated in different countries, linked to each other and will affect the student’s future. Social media make these issues universal, and our students are subject to discuss them be affected by them at any moment. Daisy summed it up beautifully when she said ” I think my responsibility as a teacher really lies with fostering discussions, promoting good social media practice, and teaching strong media literacy skills. There’s no better way to create active digital citizens than providing others with the ability to think and speak for themselves.”

Project Quality Improvement

Last week, I thought much about how to continuously improve quality of online courses.  I tried to apply the concepts I learned in the Project quality Management workshop I took this term. The objective is to understand how to keep an online course up-to-date.

This generally involves tasks such as:

•  Help develop/modify a time plan for courses to help achieve course objectives.

•  Provide instructors with more educational resources (web resources, images, questions/answers) that help achieve the learning outcome.

•  Develop and maintain learning resources, including user manuals/guides, online tutorials, and other resources for instructors, students and staff

  • Troubleshoot/ track issues and develop instructional materials to address problems

•  Ensure conformity to laws, best practices and standards including copyright laws

  • Reconfigure formatting as necessary and flag dead links, broken elements and out-of-date material and discuss this with the instructor, ID and GM.

The below video was so helpful for me to understand the concept and be able to connect the dots.

The above tasks are generally part of course delivery and redelivery checklists developed by departments over the years for quality assurance purposes.  In my case,  the checklists were created by the instructional design team who have experiences with hundreds of courses being offered every year for many years. These checklists gather experiences, best practices and lessons learned over the years.

Next comes implementing revisions/additions to a course to ensure the course continues to meet the standards as set out by the department.  Editorial examples of things I look for in my check include:

  • Links are descriptive and labels are consistent with the destination headings and content.
  • Course materials are free of typos and grammatical errors.
  • Online readings and resources are properly linked.
  • Links to external readings and online resources open in new windows.
  • Fonts (style, colour, and size): content fonts are consistent throughout the course; headings are consistent, and heading fonts identify the level of heading appropriately and include no underlining.
“7 Measures of Quality in Online Learning” Flickr photo by giulia.forsythe shared into the public domain using (CC0)


The continuous improvement process is very important to any project including design and develops online courses. It is everyone’s responsibility; instructional design team, instructors, department, students, and institution.